Skip to content

Unveiling the Bitcoin Stock-to-Flow (S2F) Model and Its Application

The Bitcoin Stock-to-Flow (S2F) model posits that Bitcoin’s value appreciates as its supply diminishes. Proponents of the S2F model anticipate significant returns for Bitcoin investors, with forecasts suggesting tenfold returns every four years.

However, skepticism abounds, with various analysts questioning the model’s validity and accuracy. Despite dissenting opinions, many steadfast HODLers remain committed to the model, citing its historical accuracy as evidence.

So, is the S2F model a crystal ball for crypto, or merely an idealistic concept that falls short in practice? We delve deeper into these questions later in this guide. But first, let’s unravel what the S2F model entails and how it functions.

Understanding the Stock-to-Flow Model

At the core of S2F models lies the premise that scarcity is the primary driver of an asset’s value. These models assess an asset’s scarcity by comparing its circulating supply (stock) to its annual incoming supply (flow). A higher S2F ratio signifies greater scarcity and, consequently, higher value.

Bitcoin’s S2F model, pioneered by PlanB, a notable analyst and investor in the crypto space, posits that due to Bitcoin’s transparent supply and the inherent difficulty in creating counterfeit Bitcoin, the S2F model can accurately predict Bitcoin’s price trajectory.

Calculating the Stock-to-Flow (S2F) Ratio

To determine an asset’s S2F ratio, one divides the total supply by the annual flow. For Bitcoin, this involves dividing the total supply (currently 19,060,593 BTC) by the fixed annual flow (328,500 BTC).

Bitcoin’s annual flow is derived from the daily number of Bitcoin blocks mined (currently 144) multiplied by the block reward (6.25 BTC), resulting in 900 new BTC entering circulation daily. This figure is then multiplied by 365 days to yield an annual flow of 328,500 BTC.

Although Bitcoin’s flow halves approximately every four years, with the next halving scheduled for 2024, its S2F ratio continues to rise over time. Assets with higher S2F ratios are expected to appreciate in value, contrasting with goods with low S2F ratios, which typically depreciate over time.

Why Utilize the Stock-to-Flow Model for Bitcoin Price Projections?

Unlike many commodities and precious metals, Bitcoin’s supply and flow remain relatively immune to external factors such as economic downturns or geopolitical events. Consequently, Bitcoin’s S2F model offers a more reliable framework for price projections compared to other assets.

The accuracy of Bitcoin’s S2F ratio stems from its transparent supply and unalterable flow, rendering it an ideal candidate for S2F modeling. Unlike commodities like gold, whose supply and flow are subject to significant uncertainty and manipulation, Bitcoin’s metrics are precise and immutable.

Current Predictions and Observations

According to PlanB’s S2F model, Bitcoin’s price should ideally surpass $100,000, a stark contrast to its current value of around $23,000. The model forecasts a potential price point of $110,000 in 2023, with further appreciation to $200,000 thereafter.

However, Bitcoin’s recent price trajectory diverges from the S2F model’s predictions, with its current value significantly below the projected levels. Despite this deviation, historical data suggests that Bitcoin’s price tends to realign with the S2F model over time, albeit after periods of discrepancy.

Critiques of the Stock-to-Flow Model

The S2F model has faced criticism for various reasons, primarily its perceived lack of accuracy and reliability. Critics argue that the model overemphasizes Bitcoin’s flow, overlooking other factors that influence its price dynamics.

Furthermore, the model assumes perpetual or increasing demand for Bitcoin, failing to account for regulatory interventions or market saturation. As Bitcoin’s dominance wanes amidst the proliferation of alternative cryptocurrencies, its adherence to the S2F model’s forecasts may diminish.


While the S2F model offers valuable insights into Bitcoin’s scarcity and potential value appreciation, it should be viewed as one among many tools for assessing cryptocurrency markets. While deviations from the model’s predictions have occurred, historical data suggests that Bitcoin’s price tends to converge with the S2F model over time.

Thus, while the S2F model provides a useful framework for understanding Bitcoin’s value proposition, investors should exercise caution and consider additional factors when formulating investment strategies.